# Pincer

Difficulty: Beginner   Keywords: Opening, Joseki, Go term

Chinese: 夹 (jia1)
Japanese: ハサミ (hasami)
Korean: 협공 (挾攻) (hyeop-gong)

This article describes the pincer, i.e. a play which attacks a kakari (corner approach) from the outside.

 Table of contentsIntroduction Overview Pincers and the development of fuseki theory Etymology Table of diagramsAn example of a pincer Next Former opening

## Introduction

An example of a pincer

In a corner opening, in response to the kakari of , or a nearby move is called a pincer, because it “pincers” the approaching stone from the other side. The pincer is an attack on , and prevents it from forming an ideal base.

Next

There are many possible consequent developments:

a) jump out to defend the pincered stone

b) lean against the corner stone to develop strength towards the centre and left side

c) lean against the pincer stone to develop strength towards the corner and top side

d) attach to the corner stone to make a living or flexible shape

e) invade the corner and sacrifice the pincered stone, or link up with it should the opponent choose to block at the top

f) double approach to the corner stone

## Overview

All types of pincers are indexed by the pincer path.

The article Pincer Nomenclature explains the terminology for pincers (“low” v. “high”, “n-space”) and provides links to many josekis arising from pincers.

There are three common sources of pincers: the 3-4 point, the 4-4 point, the 3-5 point when the approach is at 4-3. There would be a certain logic in treating 4-4 point double kakari variations as pincers. Uncommon pincers are:

## Pincers and the development of fuseki theory

Section contributed by Bill Spight

Around 400 years ago, this was a popular start:

Former opening

prevented Black from making an enclosure, and then prevented White from making a base on the third line. White would like to extend at least to . A three-space pincer at a would allow White to extend to b, which is a cramped short extension. White now typically played in an open corner, satisfied with having prevented a black enclosure.

Later, people realized that Black need not hurry to attack . If Black played in an open corner and White extended from to make a base, Black could make an enclosure in the other corner, which was better. Even later, people realized that White did not have to hurry to prevent Black’s enclosure, but could play in the top left corner in a way that worked with a later kakari at . If Black made an enclosure, White could play first in a third corner. Such realizations were the beginning of fuseki theory.

## Etymology

The Japanese term ハサミ hasami is noun form of verb hasamu, which means “put something in between, sandwich”.

Pincer last edited by Dieter on January 20, 2022 - 15:12