Many moves have been analyzed in amazing depth. Some of this analysis is already to be found at Sensei's. This is no more than a list of the most basic moves, their shape-names (form) and typical usage (function). If it has a name know it.
The stones don't really move. Rather the ability of a stone or group of stones to connect to a stone played nearby is how the stones move, that is, how the stones expand their area of control or influence. This is sometimes known as haengma. The focus here is on the relation between the new stone and nearby stones already on the board. This old stone may be friendly or hostile. The names refer to these relations.
A stone placed on any of the lettered points generally has a good relationship with the stone.
If the newly placed stone is White, the first of these names applies (e.g. stretch). If the newly played stone is Black, the second name describes the play (e.g. tsuke).
a: stretch / tsuke (attachment)
b: kosumi / katatsuki (shoulder hit)
c: ikken tobi (one-point jump) / ikken gakari?+
d: keima (knight's move) / keima gakari+
e: niken tobi / niken gakari?+
f: ogeima / ogeima gakari+
+ These 'kakari' terms are used against a corner stone.
- Closer moves are slower;
- Closer moves are more strongly connected.
Relations between two friendly stones that are even further away from each other do not have their own generic names, independent of board geography. In specific situations some do for instance extensions and opening formations.
These moves aren't as elementary as the earlier moves. On a scale from elementary to compound, however, they are much closer to the simple side than e.g. a snapback, throw-in, nakade plays or crane's nest tesuji .
For replies see Basic instinct.
See also haengma.