Chinese: 等级 dĕng jí
Japanese: レーティング (reetingu)
A rating is a number calculated from previous performance. Rating is not the same as rank, it is sometimes used to determine rank, however.
A commonly used rating system in Europe is GoR, which is an Elo Rating attempting to match the difference of one stone handicap to 100 GoR points.
Many less traditional rating systems exist, e.g. KGS Algorithm.
For more detail: Rating Systems