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These are the things that you should learn to see really quickly because they either form the foundation of more advanced techniques, are extremely common throughout the kyu ranges, or are not typically seen from players better than 20 kyu (advanced beginners).
By playing , White simultaneously ataris the two marked black stones. This is the disadvantage of playing too many diagonal plays while up against your opponent's stones.
The second line is dangerously close to the edge of the board. When playing on it, be aware that you can get chased into the wall quite easily.
Captures the black stone. While extending at is technically basic instinct, Black is merely throwing stones away. Even if White plays elsewhere, Black cannot escape.
[Shortage of Liberties] Traps
These Stones cannot escape. When they extend with , they still have only two liberties and can then be put in atari with .
These stones are similarly plagued. They cannot get out. As it turns out, these stones can't even escape if they have a stone at (see the Crane's Nest)
The initial black stone is caught in a ladder. Unless there is a black stone on the first or second line to which the black group can connect, White can chase the line of stones to the edge of the board and capture all of them.
White can also capture the black stones in a net with the sequence up to if there is enough room ( and can be played in any order).
White can capture with the sequence to . Remember, however, that a cut remains at a and is the source of many tesuji.