Here are some examples of the Japanese term, damezumari, which is typically translated as shortage of liberties.
This example comes from Modern Famous Games (Gendai no Meikyoku), vol. 6 (Go Seigen ii), pp. 135 -6.
was a mistake.
HolIgor: Strange, though the marked stones are short of liberties, my understanding of damezumari is different. Damezumari is usually used to describe the positions in which one of the sides cannot make a useful move because of the decrease of liberties. It is like the story of a donkey and a carrot, close yet you cannot bite of it. In the example above white stones don't have many liberties, so what? I know some perfectly alive and healthy groups with 2 liberties only.
Bill: But this isn't one of them. ;-)
is a driving tesuji.