A player's group of stones is
- n-connected if the opponent starts and the player can make at most n passes before his first play and defends all the stones to be string-connected or directly connected to each other,
- -n-connected if the player starts and needs at least n plays before the opponent's first play to defend all the stones to be string-connected or directly connected to each other.
Besides *-connected refers to arbitrarily many passes of the player.
The terms have been invented in Joseki Volume 2 Strategy to assess the degree or quality of connection, compare the connection degrees of different moves and define general, theoretical models of influence and thickness.