This page is to describe what the different rule sets tells us and what alternatives (from other rulesets) are.
This is all a bit a misty subject but i hope this page will give some light.
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Some rule sets use special rules here.
- The bent four in the corner is dead rule in Japanese rules
- One on the different superko rules. (every rule set needs at least one i guess)
It is nice to think there are rule sets where this problem cannot arise. but even in rule sets with an all stones are alive rule? there need to be a superko rule.
Maybe only in no pass go with an superko rule this situation cannot arise.
It is thought that rules that use territory scoring are more vunerable to this than rules that use area scoring simply because under area scoring playing protective moves? in your own territory doesn't hurt your score.
Some rule sets have hidden in them rules that forbid you to pass. Mostly these rules that prescribe players to make protective plays. (again Japanese rules) Refusing to do so is in principle breaking the rules of the game and so a loss / win by forfeit is appropriate although claiming a win this way is not good sportmanship?.
One of the options here is just to resume the game:
- Which player can resume the play?
- can a player recapture a ko?
- Are the rules the same as before the game end?
Again different rule sets have different opinions here.
- Aga rules : the player who passed first has the right to play.
- Japanese rules 1989: rule 9.3 says the opponent of the player who wants to resume may play first.
Join the discussion here
 Unclear here is a wide term. It can be understand to be unclear for a beginner, unclear for at least one of the players. or unclear without looking and studying a rule book.