Deep Blue was the IBM Research computer that met then World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov in two matches. The first six game match occurred in February 1996; Deep Blue won the first game but lost the match due to Kasparov winning three games and the other two games ending in ties. The second six game match of six games playes in May 1997 resulted in a score of Deep Blue 3.5 and Garry Kasparov 2.5. Draws add a half point to each players score.
Deep Blue was built by a team of researchers led by Feng-Hsiung Hsu with the assistance of many chess Grandmasters. Endgame databases were provided by Lewis Stiller and Ken Thompson, who created UNIX with Dennis Ritchie.
Hsu has characterized the matches between Kasparov and Deep Blue as contests between man as performer (Kasparov) and man as toolmaker (the Deep Blue team) thereby rejecting the common view oft repeated in the media that the matches were between man and machine.
IBM Research Deep Blue site
Behind Deep Blue is Hsu's book on the building of Deep Blue.
Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine 2004 documentary on the match.
Kasparov and Deep Blue is Bruce Pandolfini's account from the perspective of a chess expert.