Mathematical Go Chilling Gets the Last Point written by Elwyn Berlekamp and David Wolfe provides a one hundred page detailed analysis of the (very) late endgame from the point of view of combinatorial game theory. The second half of the book is a detailed sixth page treatise on the rules of go both from a top down perspective (Appendix A: Rules of Go -- A Top-down Overview) and and bottom up view (Appendix B: Foundations of the Rules of Go).
Also published in Japanese in 1994 as "囲碁の算法―ヨセの研究 数理科学シリーズ" ISBN-10: 4810189295; ISBN-13: 978-4810189292
to be added
"A situation which will baffle professionals" is illustrated in this problem by David Wolfe that can be solved with the methods presented in the book. "A 9 dan professional from the Nihon Ki-in spent 4 hours trying to solve this problem and failed."
 Presented in http://youtu.be/rNvP6a8sTnI?list=PL329A9A14A4F7D8E7 at 5:30.